ORTHOGRAPHIA NEWROZI

ORTHOGRAPHIA NEWROZI

Zhe cedsala 11an ta charieka pyshin a cedsala 20an cordan be elifba cordki a be kertyn (xharfyn) xsareban be zmany khwe nevistenen ud khwendenen. De cedsala 20an da dema wary cordan buye penj parche systema nevistena cordki zhi belawela bue. Cord inrozh hina be thy hawai be zmany khwe denevisen. Le Bacorr ud Bashury Rhozhava be alphabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman, le Bashur, Rhozhhelat ud Bashury Rhozhhelat be elifba cordki a be kertyn xsareban a sala 1951i, le Bacorry Rhozhhelat be alphabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman a goherrandi ud alphabeta cordki a be kertyn cril a dema Sovieta bery denevisen.

Alphabeta Newrozi be armanja systemyn nevistena cordki beket yek hatie amadekerden[1]. Zhe ber co de Newrozy da hatie amadekerden me navy Alphabeta Newrozi ly kerdie. De amadekerdena Alphabeta Newrozi da zhe hemi hawayn cordki ud zmanyn proto-cordki py hatenen nevisten sud hatie wergerten. De heman demy da zhe nevistena cordki a cordolog ud gerrcaryn europan ud american yn zhe cedsala 18an ta cedsala 20an zhi sud hatie wergerten.

De nevistena zmanan da do hawayn bengehin yn nishandaina dangan henen. Yek:  nishandaina dengyn teny zmaneki. Italianki, spanyolki, ruski, xsarebki chend nomunyn zhe coma pyshin en. Do: nishandaina dengyn chend zmanan be hev ra. Latinki, fareski, franceski, ingliski chend nomunyn zhe coma dawin en. Romian dema alphabet ud systema nevistena latinki amade kerdene ly khebetine hemi kert u dengyn zmany hellenki be hawaki de nevistena latinki da nishan beden. Fars gotenyn khwe yn be aszlyn khwe zhe xsarebki nen mina xsareban denevisen, ly mina khwe dexwinen. De amadekerdena systema nevistena cordki da me zhe her do hawai zhi sud wergert, ly zhe ber co haway dodian be me rastter, zanestiter ud khweshter hat me khwastie wem porrania dengyn zhe kertyn hellenki, xsarebki ud latinki de gotenyn zhe van zmanan ketenen zmany me da be hawayeki rast benevisen.   

Zhe bo cord becaneben be Alphabet ud Orthographia Newrozi zmany xwe benevisen by goman demek amadehiy lazem est. De vy demy da devyt be orthographia cordki ra systema check-spelling zhi were amadekerden. Zhe bo rastter weren nevisten listyn gotenyn cordki yn zhe zmany xsarebki ud yn ne zhe zmany xsarebki ly be kertyn  de elifba cordki a beri 1951y da hebunen hatenen nevisten weren amadekerden. Devyt listyn zhe gotenyn zmanyn hellenki, latinki ud zmananyn den yn cereke yn europan zhi behyten amadekerden da co rast behyten nevisten, goten ud rast behyten khwenden. De heman demy da devyt listyn gotenyn cordki yn homophon ud homagraph zhi behyten amadekerden da co xhata momkun bet merev becanebet wan de nevisteny da zhe hev jehy beneviset.

Amadekerdena gotenyn cordki yn be formyn khwe yn gran (strong) ud sevec (weak), formy be hev ve (contraction) ud formy temam (full form) zaf gring est. Be formy gran ud formy temam yn wushan, cordkia formal dehyte nevisten, ud be formy sevec ud formy be hev ve yn wushan zhi cordkia neformal dehyte nevisten. Ydi dem hatie mellety cord zhi bebet khwedi zmany khwe y formal ud neformal. De vy rewshy da kesyn cordkia formal hin bebiten be hawaeki hysanter decanen zhe zar ud shywezaryn cordki tybegehyn. Devyt nehyte zhebirkerden co zmany akhafteny zmaneki zaf goherbar est; de nav demy da gelec gotenyn de rastia khwe da homophon nenen zhi deben homophon ud ry le ber tevlehevia manyn wan khwesh debet. Do gondyn nyzdiki hev zhi porr jaran heman gotenan be hawaeki zhe hev juda teleffuzs deken. Zmany formal zhe bo parastena sheclushemala wushan zhi khwedi gringiek by hemta est.

BE SIMBOLYN ALPHABETA PHONETİC A INTERNATIONAL

PHONEMYN CORDKI UD NEVISTENA WAN

Vocal

Simbolyn API[2]

Alphabeta Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alphabeta Hawary

Alphabeta Cril

1

ɑ

a

 

ا

a

a

2

ε

e

ea

ە

e

ә

3

i

i

 

ی

î

и

4

o

o

oa

ۆ

o

о

5

u

u

 

وو

û

У

6

ə

e o a

 

 

i

ь

7

e

y

yy ei

ێ

ê

е

8

ɵ

o

 

و

u

ӧ

9

ɑ:

 

aa

آ

a

a

10

ε:

 

ee

ە

e

ә

11

i:

 

ii

ی

î

и

12

o:

 

au

ۆ

o

о

13

u:

 

oo ou

وو

û

У

 

 

 

Consonant

Simbolyn API

Alf. Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alf. Hawary

Alf. Cril

14

b

b

 

ب

b

б

15

bh

 

bh

ب

b

б

16

m

m

 

م

m

м

17

p

p

 

پ

p

п

18

pʰ

p

ph

پ

p

п’

19

w

w

 

و

w

w

20

f

f

 

ف

f

ф

21

v

v

 

ڤ

v

в

22

d

d

 

د

d

д

23

dz

 

ض

dz

д, з

24

j

 

ج

c

щ

25

 dʒʰ

 

jh

ج

c

щ

26

ʒ

 

zh

ژ

y

ж

27

l

l

 

ل

l

л

28

ɭ

l

lh

ڵ

l

л’

29

n

n

 

ن

n

н

30

ŋ

ng

 

نگ

ng

нг

31

ɾ

r

 

ر

r

р

32

r

r

rh

ڕ

r

р’

33

s

s

c+e/i/y

س

s

c

34

θ

 

th

ث

s

c

35

 

sz

ص

s

c

36

ʃ

 

sh

ش

ş

ш

37

t

t

td

ط

t

т

38

t

 

ت

t

т’

39

z

z

 

ز

z

з

40

ð

 

dh

ذ

z

з

41

 

zs

ظ

z

з

42

g

g

 

گ

g

г

43

k

c k

ck

ک

k

к

44

kʰ

c k

qu+a/e/i/o/y

ک

k

к’

45

q

q

 

ق

q

q

46

khs ks gz

x

 

کس گز

ks gz

кc, гз

47

x

 

kh

خ

x

x

48

ʍ

 

khw

خو

xw

xw

49

ʁ

 

gh

غ

ѓ

50

h

h

 

ھ

h

h

51

ħ

 

xh

ح

һ’

52

ɦ

h

 

ع

h

h

53

Ɂ

 

ء

 

54

ʕ

 

xs

ع

ә'

55

 

ch cs

چ

ç

ч

56

 

ch

چ

ç

ч’

57

j

y

 

ی

y

й

 

   Diphtong

Simbolyn API

Diphtong

Nomune

58

ɑɑ

aa

kaa niskan, tdaa wan

59

ɑε

ae

mae, dae

60

ɑi

ai

haidar, daik

61

ɑe

ay

bay corr

62

ɑo

ao

aghao

63

ɑu

au, aw

taus, auk, Australia, bawi, law, tawi, sauna

64

εɑ

ea

idea

65

εε

ee

mangeek

66

εi

ei

hein

67

εe

ey

khwendey

68

εo

eo ewo

bendeo, Hewo

69

εu

eu, ew

deu, dew, gewr, heu, hew, kew europan, rewsh

70

iɑ

ia

piano

71

ie

musicien

72

ii

ii

dara biin

73

ie

iy

rendiy

74

io

io

radio

75

iu

iu iw

stadium, diwar

76

eɑ

ya

chya me

77

ejε

ye

hatye

78

ee

yy

chyy wan

79

ei

yi

chyi

80

eo

yo

Khwedyo

81

eu

yu yw

dyubav, dyw

82

oɑ

oa

cershoa

83

oe

reshoe

84

oe

oy

cershoy

85

oi

oi

iroin

86

oo

oo

csoo, chloo

87

ou

ow

cou, show

88

ɵɑ

oa

joan

89

ɵe

oe

to’y (to dy)

90

ɵi

oi

to i

91

ɵo

oo

kho o (khwe o)

92

ɵu

ou

to ud ky

93

uja, uɑ

ua

bebua, bechua, tuan

94

ujε

ue

bue, chue

95

ue

uy

dara tuy

96

uj, ui

ui

to bui, muin,

97

uo

uo uw

tuo, ruwo

98

uu

uu

buubu, chuubu, uu

ALPHABETA NEWROZI

Kert

Kert

Nomune

1

A a

ager

2

B b

berf

3

C c

cusi

4

D d

dar

5

E e

eleg

6

F f

fend

7

G g

ga

8

H h

hyk

9

I i

isot

10

Jj

jotcar

11

K k

kereng

12

L l

lale

13

M m

masi

14

N n

nan

15

O o

ordeg

16

P p

pivaz

17

Q q

qelem

18

R r

rozh

19

S s

syv

20

T t

tazhi

21

U u

uti

22

V v

veshartok

23

W w

weres

24

X x

fax

25

Y y

yzeng, yek

26

Z z

zerdeli

 

 

Digraph

Digraph

Nomune

1

aa

caar (cahr)

2

ea

bear

3

ee

beer

4

ii

biir

5

au

automobil

6

oa

goal

7

oo

boom

8

ou

boum

9

yy

lyy

10

bh

bhisten

11

ch

cha

12

cs

cseng, cso

13

dh

dhewq

14

dz

Khedzer

15

gh

ghar

16

kh

khani

17

lh

lhor

18

ph

phar

19

qu+e/i/y

quew

20

rh

rhast

21

sz

szal

22

sh

shalul

23

td

tda

24

th

thi, thy

25

xh

xhannar

26

xs

xsawr

27

zh

zhuzhi

28

zs

zselam

 

 

 

ORTHOGRAPHIA NEWROZI

Wem dy de parta Orthographiay da be porrani ji beden methelyn nacoc ud yn xhatda inrozh le ser nehati nevisten.

Digraphyn zhe bo kymkerdena gotenyn homophon ud homograph

Be digraphyn vocal aa, ae, ea, ii, ee, oa, au, ou, oo, yy gotenyn homagraph ud homophon dehyten nevisten.

aa:  Tdaeki bary hespy te khwar est, rast beket. Hew her dem tday hev degeren. Hew be tdaay ketie, beben jem bezhishk. Erdy wi rhast est, kash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty yek le aliy chepy est.

ee, ea: Le ber khwe myze beket. Insal beary rezan tonne. Sing ud beer. Wi terr kerd. Ev dar tearr en. Daran perr weshanden. Porr, gelek, zor ud zahf khwedi heman many nen. Teshtek de teashty da nemabu. Be deasteki dest belend kerd. Gelek merev be deesty (pandemia) coronay merden.

ii: Dehyt bira men, le vy dery biirek avy hebu. Ev dara biiy est. Myryn bi ud zhenyn bi. Merevyn bery be tir ud kevan bun. Ava wy kaniy tiir bu, nedehat vekhwarden. Lazem est dew ne tiir bet ne zhi ron.

oa, au: Golyn sor, golyn zerd, golyn spi le ber gaula avy bun. Barcelonay do goal havyten Madridy. Automobil boha bunen.

ou, oo: Be quyra touzh biberyn tuzh hur kerden. Do sal baery ez khwendecar bum. Boum ferria. Dengyn bomban dehat behisten, boom, boom! Zhe hoor ud rovian xhaz nedekerd. Pery khwe hour beke. Pivazyn khwe hur beke. Tury khwe avyt baggagey ud le otobusa toury sowar bud.

yy, ei:  Tyr khwarie. Le pei tyyr chu Chiny. Chyiy beket, lyh mebyzhet. Deiny wi ly (le wi/wy/wan) est. Ev lo lo est, lei lei ma est. Ly disa zhi tu dezani.

Be digraphyn consonat cs, ph, td /t/, c+e,i,y, qu+a,e,i,o,u,y ud k+a,o,u teny gotenyn (word) homophon, homograph ud gotenyn zhe zmanyn bygane yn wosan dehyten nevisten ud van dengan deden, dehyten nevisten.

c+e,i,y /θ/-/s/: cinema, police, ambulance, bicyclet, piece, franceski, Barcelona

cs: De germy da ben csengy merev khwi dedet. Chenga wi shekia. Cso de deastan da le pei kery barkeri cho choa wi bu. Cseka khwe havyt peshta khwe ud chu sherr. Bazergan dekanet de shuna pere da chek bedet. Zhe musicienyn cheang ly dekhen ra cheangi dehyte goten.

qu+a,e,i,o,y ud k+a,o,u /k/, /kh/: Bazergany zhyhati cary khwe zhi quara khwe zhi dezanet. Cary ty da quar tonne bet car nene. De vi cari da quar tonne. quyra khwe touzh kerd. Quyra men zhe bo berrina vi dari be kyr nahyt. Ca (fg cany) te cheqas qua kerri? Bazergyn zhe cary froshtena vi kari (fg. kahr) be qasi cary froshtena cardiy (fs. cari) zhi quar nekerd. Kesi kesa pryza genem berhev nekerd. Kelemyn senjy zaf dejwar en. Zhe dara mazi ra le hendek deran myshe ud le hendek deran zhi keleam dehyt goten. Zhe bazary quelem kerrin ud zhe bo shivy paten. Be corman avy vedekhwet, be korman masian degeret…

ph /p/: Car le hev phar kerden.

td /t/: Be tay ketebu. Terzi tda be derzia khwe ve kerd ud deast be drutena kenjan kerd. Tdol nacanet tola khwe heldet.

Gotenyn be digraphyn lh ud rh dehyten nevisten

Hemi r ud l yn le cery gotenyn cordki phonemyn /r/ ud /ɭ/ nen. Ev her do digraph teny teny le cery gotenyn homophon dehyten nevisten.

lh: Lhema mangy tezhe shir bue. Lor zhe lhor xhaz deken. O laz lhaz o. Lhori lhoria lor bu.

rh /r/: Rhozh jihany ronahi deket. Rozhek 24 saxsat est. Erdy wi rhast est, kash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty bu, yek aliy chepy. Rha le Mesra bery navy khwedaeki est.

Kymkerdena gotenyn homograph

De zmaneki da porrbuna gotenyn homograph hendek jaran decanet ry le ber thevlehevia manyn van gotenan vebeket. Zhe nomunyn de tabloa zhyrin da hatenen nevisten rend khwia debet co merev decanet be nevistena zmany formal (be formyn gran yn gotenan) de derenjeke ne hendek da hezhmara homgraphan kym beket. Devyt ev formyn gran yn gotenan inrozh hina zhi qet nebet le deverek wary be vi zmani deng deken berdewam biten. By goman merev decanet de nevistena formal da jih bedet chend gotenyn analog zhi, ly de zmaneki da hezhmara van cheqas kym bet, hewqas qenj est.

Nevisten

Goten be API

Be ingliski

ader (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑdəɾ (fs: ɑ:ɾ)

fire

ager (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑgəɾ (fs: ɑ:ɾ)

fire

ard (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑɾd

flour

hard, erd, xsard, n. m.

hɑ:ɾd, ε:ɾd, ʕɑɾd,

earth

bad (fs: ba) n. m.

bɑd (fs: bɑ)

wind

bal (fs: ba) prep.

bɑl (fs: bɑ:)

next to

baal n. z.

bɑ:l

attention

balh (bezhnubalh)

bɑ:ɭ

stature

bang (fs: ba)

bɑ

appeal, call

bar n. z.

bɑɾ

bar

baar n. m.

bɑɾ

load

brader (fs: bra)

bɾɑdεɾ

brother

be rasti (fs: bera)

bε rɑsti (fs: bərɑ:)

actually, really

bra (fs: bla)

bɾɑ (fs: blɑ)

let someone do something

bir n. z. birhanin v.

biɾ biɾhɑnin

mind, remember

biir n. z.

bi:ɾ

well

bid (fs: bi) n. z.

bid (fs bi)

willow tree

bi adj.

bi:

widow

bum v.

bum

I was. I became.

boum n. m z.

bum

owl

boom inter.

bu:m

boom

cani, cany (fs: ca) pers.

khɑni, khɑne (fs: khɑ)

where

ka n. z.

kɑ

straw, hay, chaff

kahni (fs: kani)

kɑhni (fs: kɑ:ni)

fountain

quani adj.

khɑni

about source

cal adj.

khɑl

raw fruit or vegetable

kahl (fs: kal) n. m.

kɑhl (fs: kɑ:l)

grand father, grandpa

car n. m.

kʰɑɾ

work

quar n. z.

kʰɑ:ɾ

income, earning, gain

cahr (fs: caar), ked n. m.. z.

kɑɦɾ (fs: kɑ:ɾ), kəd

kid, capricorn

co (co dery) prs.

kʰɵ

where

coh (fs: cou) n. m.

kʰɵh (fs: kʰo:w)

mountain

kash n. m.

kʰɑʃ

collin

cash kerden v.

kʰɑʃkʰəɾdən, kʰɑʃkəɾən

to draw, to pull

cheng n. z.

εŋ

chin

cseng (bezishki) n. m.

εŋ

axilla (medicine)

cer n. m.

sε:ɾ

head

ser prep.

sεɾ

on

cearr (fs: sal) n. z.

sεr

year

cerr n. z.

sər

secret

serr adj.

sər

cool

cho

tʃo:

giddap (said to make a donkey move forward)

cso n. m.

tɕo:

stick, baton

coart n. z.

ko:ɾt

col, hole, trench

cort adj.

kɵɾt

short

cor (fs: cur) adj.

khoɾ (fs: kuɾ)

blind

cour adj.

khuɾ

deep

corr

kɵr

boy, son

corri

khɵri

colt, young horse or donkey

dear adj. adv.

dε:ɾ

out

dergeh (fs: der) n. m.

dεɾgεh (fs: dεɾ)

door

dher adv.

ðεɾ

there

deast n. m.

dεst

hand

deest n. m.

dεst

pandemic

dest n. z.

dəst

cauldron

ferr n. z.

fər

flight

fert (fs: ferr) n. z.

fəɾt (fs: fər)

(a)    sip, (a) sup

geran pr.

gɾɑn

the collins

gran adj.

gɾɑ:n

heavy, strong

ger n. m.

gəɾ

collin

gers (fs: ger) adj.

gəɾs (fs: gəɾ)

big, huge

goh (fs: go)

gɵh (fs: go:)

ear

got (fs: go)

got (fs: go:)

said

ques n.

khεs

big straw, useless straw

kes n.

khε:s

person, nobody, no one

khward (fs: khwar) v.

ʍɑɾd (fs: ʍɑɾ)

ate

khwahr (fs: khwaar) adj.

ʍɑ:ɾ

crooked, curve, wry

khwar adv. pre

ʍɑɾ

below, down

quyr n. z.

kheɾ

knife

kyr adj.

keɾ

useful

kewe (fs: kew)

kεwε (fs: kεw)

blue

quew

kεw

partridge, grouse

mahr (fs: maar) n. m., z.

mɑɦɾ (fs: mɑ:ɾ)

snake

mar n. z.

mɑ:ɾ

marriage

no

no

naughty

na, noa

nɑ: no:

no

par adj.

pɑɾ

las year

phar n. z.

phɑ:ɾ

share, portion, equal part, part, dividend,

perd (fs: perr) n. z.

phəɾd (fs: phər)

bridge

porr adj.

pher

very, a lot, lots

piu! (pii!) interj.

piu (fs: pi:)

phew!

phi n. m.

phi

dad, father

phii n. z.

phi:

peace

pi n. m.

phi

arm, chol (medicine)

rast

rɑst

right, straight

raast

rɑ:st

flat

rhast

rɑst

right direction

rozh (fs: ro)

ro:ʒ (fs: ro:)

day

rhozh (fs: rho)

roʒ (fs: ro:)

sun

rubar (fs: ro)

rubɑɾ (fs: ro)

 

sal (fg: serr) n. z.

sɑl

year

saal, n. m.

sɑ:l

flagstone

sheav n. z.

ʃεv

night

shev n. m.

ʃəv

sprig, switch, vimen,

shirin (fs: shyrin) adj.

ʃiɾin

sweet

shyrin adj.

ʃeɾin

leonine, like a lion

ta n. m.

tɑ

strand, yarn. sapling, plant

tda n. z.

thɑ

malaria

taa n. m.

thɑ:

side, way, part, favour

tdar (fs: tdaa) adj.

thɑr (fs: thɑ:)

further, farer

tdyhni (fs: tdii) adj.

thehni (fs: thi:)

thirsty

tdi n. m.

thi

brother in law

tdesht n. z.

thεʃt

basin, washbasin

tesht n. m.

təʃt

thing

tearr adj.

tεr

sappy (tree), humid, wet

terr n. z.

tər

fart

tir

tiɾ

arrow

tiir

ti:ɾ

thick

to (fs: te) pro.

tɵ (fs: tə),

thou (you)

toa n. z

to:

cream

te pro.

tε

thee

tdo (fs: tde) det.

tho: (fs: thə)

never, any, none

xhaj n. z.

ħɑ

pilgrimage

xhaaj, hej n. m.

ħɑ:dʒ, hεdʒ

dry tree branch

zaar n. z.

zɑ:ɾ

dice

zar n. m.

zɑɾ

dialect

sar n. z.

zɑɾ

membrane

zsaar adj.

ɑ:r

Imitation speaking of someone to annoy.

zarr n. m.

ɑr

child

zoar adv.

zo:ɾ

very, a lot. In German sehr

zor adj.

zoɾ

difficult, troublesome, hard, tough, crucial

pun (fs: pin) n. z.

phun (fs: phin)

coop

pyhn (fs: piin) n. z.

pehn (fs: pi:n)

kick, hack

 

Gotenyn be digraphyn dh, dz, sz, xh, xs, zs dehyten nevisten

Be digraphyn xs, gh, xh, dh, dz, sz, zs be porrani gotenyn cordki yn be aszly khwe xsarebki dehyten nevisten. Vazhyn cordki yn de textyn classikyn cordki da be ebjeda cordki be kertyn ع, غ, ح, ذ, ص, ظ,   hatenen nevisten be van digraphan dehyten nevisten.

dh dheka, dheki, dhewq, ledhet, ledhidh

dz dzaif, dzerb, dzeruret, fodzuli, remedzan, khedzer

gh gherib, ghezal, gholam, naghme, shoghol

sz faszulia, ikhtiszasz, moszibet, qeszide

xh xhaakim, xhadith, xhaj, maxhkum, raxhm, reixhan, roxh

xs el xsaalem, xsamel, xsameliat, ixstiraf, moxsawin, qetxsi, saxsat

zs zsolm, lefzs, mazslum, menzser, nezser, nizsam, zsalem, zselam, zserf

Hendek gotenyn cordki yn be aszlyn khwe zhe xsarebki nenen zhi be kertyn xsareban yn zhe bo van digraphan hatenen nevisten.

dh caghedh

gh agha, caghedh

sz szal, szadeq

xh xhaisht (hesht), xhaft (heft)

xs xsaini, xsalem, xsatdar

zs zselam, zsalem, nizsam

Vazhyn cordki yn be aszly khwe xsarebki nen ud de xsarebki da be xharfa ک dehyten nevisten her dem be xharfa k dehyten nevisten. Ev hawa be heman characteri nevistena vazhyn zhe  heman gotena asli momkun deket:

kateb, kitab, kotobkhane, mekteb, mektub, imkan, momkun, xhokumet, kamel, kahl, kashif, keshf, mokemmel, kahen, mikail, kolli, kafer, koffar, elkoxhol, shokor, xsaks, xsaksi, Shokri, Shokran, Mokremin

Namyn khasz (propre nouns) yn de zmany aszli da be xharfa k dehyten nevisten, namyn de zmanyn be alphabeta cyrillic be xharfa к dehyten nevisten, de latinki, franceski ud ingliski da be be xharfa k dehyten nevisten de cordki da be xharfa k dehyten nevisten:

Balkan, Dostoievki, Kalinin, Kiev,  Koln, kolkhoz, perestroika, Ukraina, Trotski, Gorki

 

***Namyn khasz (propre nouns) yn de zmany aszli da be xharfa k dehyten nevisten, namyn de zmanyn be alphabeta cyrillic be xharfa к dehyten nevisten, ly de latinki, franceski ud ingliski da be be xharfa c dehyten nevisten de cordki da be xharfa c dehyten nevisten:

Moscowa,

 

Vazhyn de hellenki da be xharfa κ, de latinki, franceski ud ingliski da be xharfa k dehyten nevisten de cordki da zhi be xharfa k dehyten nevisten:

Empedokles, kilo, kilogram, kilometro, Mitsotakis

 

Vazhyn de hellenki da be xharfa κ, de latinki, franceski ud ingliski da be xharfa c dehyten nevisten de cordki da be xharfa c dehyten nevisten:

democrati, economia, macro-,  micro-, Democritus, Epicurus, Constantin, Socrates

 

Gotenyn be gemination

Consonantyn be digraphan dehyten nevisten ne ty da, hemi consonant de rewsha be shedde ud gemination da le ber vocalan dobare deben.

bb moebbed, rebb

cc sheccal, shecco, Becco, ricco

dd gheddar, moqeddes

ff coffek, qoffek (zembila pechuk)

gg aggressiv, reggae, ziggurat

hh Dehhak, qehhar

jj dejjal, xhajji, xsajjeqin

kk dhekki, Dikkel Agha, sheccal, shekker, sikke

ll chell, chelle, chellek, ghelle, golli, khellek, qollek, melle, shelleki, shelli, khellasz

mm communist, emman, gomm, ommet, temme, xhammal

nn gonn, gunni, jenn, jenni, jennet, tonne, xhanne

pp gepp, geppek, goppal, qeppar, sheppal, teppek, zeruzeppeli, zoppe,

qq beqqal, cheqqal, reqqas,

rr bacorr, bay corr, berrhozh, berrin, corr, derri (stri), cherr, cherranek, chirryn, porr, qeisian, errik, ferrin, gearrek, gorri, kerrin, qerrash, qerrek, qirrin, sherr, terr, tearr, terral, terri, terrole, varrek, verr, verrni, xharri, zerrbav, zerrguni, zerrin, zyrrin

ss hessen (xhassen), curressin, cussi, melessin, messin, pessik, tessi

tt bettani, cottan, fittek, sette (settyn mywan), xhatta, xsattar

vv bevv, bevvy (zhe zmany zarran), kevver, tevver

ww gewwer bunden, khewwerin, qewwad, qowwet

yy xsayyar, beyyar, teyyar, teyyare, seyyar,

zz bezzin, chezz, chezzin, kezzin, kezzerin, qozz, qozzolqort, rezzin, xsizzet

Gotenyn be vocalek cort ud 2 consonantan den deqeden

 

berq

chelk

chelm

colm (korm)

cord

corm

cort

delq

fecr

fert

geshk

gesht

gorg

gorm

gorz

jord (jerd)

jorm

kheshm

khesht

khoshk

meshk

perd

pert

pert

pesht

qorm

qort

rend

shocr

tesht

verd (ver da)

vert

werd (wy da)

zert

zsolm

 

 

Gotenyn be -k deqeden

Zhe ber co de cordki da suffixyn be -e, -i, -y henen, gotenyn cordki be kerta -c naqeden, be kerta -k deqeden. Ev qeide zhe bo gotenyn cordki yn zhe zmanyn be alphabetek deri alphabeta roman dehyten nevisten hatenen gerten zhi derbas debet.

Nomune:

belek, buk, dak, daik, dylek, chaidank, chariek, calek, chek, chevik, chik, chrusk, colek, colilk, dak, dik, gelek, gaulek, glok, golek, hesk, holek, hyk, jolek, kek, khellek, khelk, lek, kevchidank, kevok, mak, meshk, mrishk, nisk, nok, peshek, psik, puk, qalek, qezhak, qerrek, rekk, reshk, cerek, cerok, cereak, ceri shek, xsalok, yek, zarrok, zek, zirek, …

Gushiy consonanti khwe

De cordki da gushieki consonanti heye. Hew zhi khwe est.

kwarden, khwasten, khwe, khwaar, khwahr, khwasi, khwenche, khweda (khoda), khwedan, khwedi, khwedy, khweli, khwenden, khweng, khwesh, khwesu (khwesi), khwesh, khweshi, khwi, khwin, khwy

Nevistena purveserkyn da, ra, ve

Her che qas le hendek deveryn Cordan de zmany gella le shuna da, ra, ve purvesergyn de, re, ve hebiten zhi, zhe ber co le porrania wary cordan ud de edebiata cordi a classic da ev purveserk da, ra, ve nen, de cordia grand ud cordia standard da be da, ra, ve dehyten nevisten.

Men zhe wi ra got. Mala wi de nav daran da bud. Zhe hakhafteny porr xhaz dekerd, dema depeivi ta be derziy ve dekerd.

Verbyn be purveserk

da- dabezin, dabohorin, dachekin, dagerten, dahnin, dakevten, dakhesten, daleqin, damezrin, daqortin, darezin, dawerevin, daweshin

hel- helbezharten, helbun, helchenin, helferrin, helgerten, helhanin,  helhaten, helkerden, heldan, helpekin, helperin, helqetin, helseganden, helweshin

ra- rabun, rachenin, raferrin, ragerten, raheshten, rakerden, rakhesten, rakevten, ramusin, raperin, raweshin, razan,

ve- vearqelin, vekerden, vekevten, vekhwarden, velisten, veneshten, veqetin, verreshin, veshkin, vexhawin (vexhabin), vezhin

Porrania namyn dehyten hezhmarten

Porrania be hejmaran ra

do syv, thy syv, char syv

Porrania be verban dehyte tygehishten

syv henen, khani chykerden, kitab khwenden, joan haten

Rewsha nominativ

syvan

Porrania rewsha genitiv

syvyn te, khaniyn wan, kitabyn men, joanyn me

Porrania rewsha accusative

Noca …

Wez syvan dekhwem

Tu syvan dekhwi

Hew syvan dekhwe

Wem syvan dekhwen

Hun syvan dekhwen

Hew syvan dekhwen

Doh …

Men syv khwarden

Te syv khwarden

Wi  syv khwarden

Wy syv khwarden

Me syv khwarden

Hewe syv khwarden

Wan syv khwarden

Porrania rewsha vocativ

Syvno!

Rewsha nominativ a yekaneti ud porranetia diar ud nediar

Yekana Nediar

Ingliski

Yekana Diar

Ingliski

Porrania Nominativ

Ingliski

bazek

a hawk

baz

the hawk

bazan

hawks

bazharek

a city

bazhar

the city

bazharan

cities

kalek

an old man

kal

the old man

kalan

old men

chemek

a stream

chem

the stream

cheman

streams

darek

a tree

dar

the tree

daran

trees

deriek

a door

deri

the door

derian

doors

fendek

a candle

fend

the candle

fendan

candles

gaek

an ox

ga

the ox

gaan

Oxes

geliek

a valley

geli

the valley

gelian

valleys

golek

a rose

gol

the rose

golan

roses

herchek

a bear

herch

the bear

herchan

bears

jamiek

a mosque

jami

the mosque

jamian

mosques

 

Nevistena gotenyn zhe zmanyn bygane

Gotenyn zhe zmanyn be alphabeta roman (latin) dehyten hatenen gerten be 26 kertyn cordki dehyten nevisten. Kertyn khoszuszi van wushan zhe aliy shekli ve nyzdiki kizhan kerta cordki ben be wy dehyten nevisten. Zmanyn be ne be alphabeta roman, ly be alphabetek den dehyten nevisten be porrani de cordki da chawa dehyten goten wer dehyten nevisten.

Nevistena gotenyn graeko-roman

Gotenyn graeko-roman yn be latinki ch hatenen nevisten ud zhe ber ku de latinki dengy /x/ tonne /k/ hatenen khwenden be kh dehyten nevisten. Chemki ev goten de rewsha khwe a original da be hellenki be x dehyten nevisten ud be /x/ dehyten teleffuzkirin.

archaeologia, psychologia, choreographia, chaos, character, chrom, psychiatria

Gotenyn be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten

Gotenyn be aszlyn khwe hellenki nen, de latinki da be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten de cordki da be i dehyten nevisten:

academi, anatomi, analis, bicyclet, crystal, dynamo, dynamic, enzym, etymologia, lirism, melodi, python, psychologia, rhythm, synonym

Gotenyn be ph dehyten nevisten ud /f/ dehyten goten

Gotenyn be ph dehyten nevisten ud /f/ dehyten khwenden be ph dehyten nevisten. Chemki dema ev goten zhe hellenki ketenen latinki be kerta co inrozh grek phonema /f/ denevisen phonema p a aspirant /ph/ hatie nevisten.

philologia, philosophia, philosoph, phon, phonem, phonetican, photograph, geographia, graphican, diphtong, digraph, telephon, telegraph

Gotenyn de latinki da be suffixa -ve deqeden

Gotenyn be suffixa -ve deqeden mina by -e dehyten nevisten.:   

alternativ, alternativa, alternativiti, alternativy, alternativo, alternativan, alternativyn

negativ, negativa, negativiti, negativy, negativo, negativan, negativyn

positiv, positiva, positiviti, positivy, positivo, positivan, positivyn

Gotenyn be de latinki da be suffixa-–icus, de hellenki da be -ikos deqeden

Gotenyn graeco-roman yn hellenki da be suffixa -ikos, de latinki da be suffixa -icus deqeden de cordki da be suffixa -ic deqeden:

agnostic, archaeologic, biologic, democratic, ecologic, geographic, geometric, mathematic, music, optic, physic, technic

Gotenyn xsarebki, fareski, cordki ud torki yn be torki be xharfa ü dehyten nevsten

Gotenyn xsarebki, fareski, cordki ud torki yn be turki be xharfa ü dehyten nevisten be cordki be xharfa o dehyten nevisten, de zmany gran da /ɵ/, de zmany sevek da /ə/ dehyten teleffuzskerden.

Nevisten

Teleffuzsa be zmany gran

Teleffuzsa be zmany sevek

bolbol

bɵlbɵl

bəlbəl

bolend

bɵlεnd

blənd

colostor

khɵlɵstɵɾ

khɵləstəɾ

conji

kɵndʒi

kəndʒi

doldol

dɵldɵl

dəldəl

donia

dɵnjɑ

dənjɑ

gorm

ɾm

gəɾm

Honer

hɵnεɾ

həɾ

joda

dʒɵdɑ

ədɑ

jord

dʒɵɾd

əɾd

jorm

dʒɵɾm

əɾm

modur

mɵduɾ

mədu:ɾ

momkun

mɵmkhun

məmkhun

molk

mɵlk

məlk

monaqeşe

mɵnɑʃε

mənɑʃε

monewwer

mɵnεwwεɾ

mənεwwεɾ

mojadele

mɵdʒɾdεlε

məɑdεlε

mordar

ɾdɑ:ɾ

məɾdɑ:ɾ

nomune

nɵmune

nəmune

porr

phɵr

phər

Soleiman

sɵlejman

səleman

sorgun

ɾgun

səɾgun

Torkan

ɾkɑn

təɾkɑn

torki

thɵrki

thərki

zsolom

zˤɵlɵm

əlm

 

Porrania nediar (porrania indefinit)

Porrania nediar, be gotenek den porrania hendek, de gotenyn be consonanteky deqeden da be suffixa -en, de gotenyn be vocaleky deqeden da be suffixa -inen dehyte nishandain. Dema ev goten peshti wusha henden behyten nevisten by van suffixan dehyten nevisten.

bazharen         hendek bazhar

cheken            hendek chek

deren               hendek der

golen               hendek gol

gonden                       hendek gond

hyzhiren          hendek hyzhir

mereven          hendek merev

syven              hendek syv

zarren              hendek zarr

bazharinen      hendek bazhari

charenen         hendek chare

derinen            hendek deri

gondinen         hendek gondi

masenen          hendek mase

tahzhinen        hendek tahzhi

Be prespositionyn be, de, le, zhe ra nevistena navyn merdane

Nam                Be …              De …              Le …              Zhe

ager                 be ager                        de ager                        le ager             zhe ager

Ali                   be Ali              de Ali              le Ali               zhe Ali

Beg                 be beg             de beg             le beg              zhe beg

Bergo              be Bergo         de Bergo         le Bergo          zhe Bergo

chahv              be chahv         de chahv         le chahv          zhe chahv

chem               be chem          de chem          le chem           zhe chem

corr                 be corr             de corr            le corr              zhe corr

deast               be deast          de deast          le deast           zhe deast

dik                  be dik              de dik             le dik               zhe dik

Dijle                be Dijle           de Dijle           le Dijle            zhe Dijle

gond               be gond           de gond          le gond            zhe gond

gorg                be gorg            de gorg           le gorg             zhe gorg

hesp (nyr)        be hesp            de hesp           le hesp             zhe hesp

Jemil               be Jemil           de Jemil          le Jemil            zhe Jemil

khwedy           be khwedy      de khwedy      le khwedy       zhe khwedy

mahr                be mahr           de mahr           le mahr            zhe mahr

nyri                 be nyri             de nyri             le nyri              zhe nyri

Shyrgo                        be Shyrgo       de Shyrgo       le Shyrgo        zhe Shyrgo

tri                    be tri               de tri               le tri                zhe tri

Navyn continentan

Africa

America

Australia

Asia

Europa

Navyn dewletan

Navên welatan de zmanyn germanic da be -land, de xsarebki da be suffixa -ia, de fareski da be -ostan (-istan), de cordki da be porrani be -an deqeden. Ev navyn dewletan xsayni mina navyn gelek gund ud herymyn cordan de jomly da natewen ud suffix nagren, de rewshyn nominal, dativ, accusativ, possessiv, locativ ud vocativ da naguherren; her dem de rewsha khwe a sade da deminen.

Nomune 1: Ez chum Faresan. Faresan welateki jiran est. Ew zhe Faresan dehyt. Ew le Faresan dekhebetet.  Mala wan le Faresan est. Hun dy kinga herren Faresan. Tajik zhe Faresan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Faresan. Komara Faresan

Nomune 2: Ez chum Botan. Botan wareki khwesh est. Ew zhe Botan dehyt. Ew le Botan dekhebetet. Mala wan le Botan est. Hun dy kinga herren Botan. Cordmanj zhe Botan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Botan, Heryma Botan

 

 

Africa Bashur

America

Andorra

Angola

Antigua ud Barbuda

Argentina

Arian, Iran

Arnautan

Australia

Austuria

Azerbaijan, Athropatane

Bahaman

Barbados

Baxhrein

Belarus

Belgium

Belize

Bengladesh

Benin

Bharat, Hindistan

Bhutan

Bolivia

Bosnia Hersek

Bostwana

Bresilia

Brunei

Bulgaran

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cabo Verde

Cambodia

Camerun

Canada

Catalunia

Cazakhestan, Cazakhan

Chad

Chad

Chechia

Chili

Chin

Columbia

Comara Africa Central

Comara Dominican

Comoros

Cordan

Core

Cosovo

Costa Rica

Cote d’Ivoire

Croatan, Khervatan

Cuba

Cuweit

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominica

Ecuador

El Salvador

Emirat

Eritre

Estonia

Eswatini

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Faresan, Parsan

Fas

Felestin

Fiji

Finland

France

France, Gallia

Gabon

Gambia

Gana

Germenan, Almania

Gine

Gorjan

Grenada

Guatemala

Guetamala

Guinea Papua New

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Hayestan, Ermenan

Hellenan, Yunan

Hititan